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Guidelines for the registration of biopesticides in Egypt

Pesticide industry in Egypt

Pest control strategy in Egypt

proceeding of the first conference of agric. pesticides committee


Safe Handling of Pesticides

1- Proper handling of pesticides for achieving efficacy and safety
The pesticide is a chemical substance, either naturally occurring or manufactured,to be used for minimizing pest population within technologies of protecting human and animal health,as well the environmental components. Pesticides have two contr-adictory properties:they play an important role in human welfare because they help to increase agricultural production,and protect humans from dangerous diseases if they used properly.On the other hand, pesticides could be extremely hazards to man if misused. This refers to the fact that pesticide molecules are designed to harm living organisms such as insects, fungi, weeds, rodents and mites, etc. Consequently, all pesticides are considered as life poisons. Excessive and misuse of pesticides may cause severe accidental harms,but proper handling will lead to more safe towards man, animal and environment.

2- Safety precautions of pesticide handling during manufacturing
There are a number of actions and conditions should be undertaken when establishing
and working in pesticide factories or production units; such as:
a- The factory should be far of residential areas, schools, hospitals, food, feed stores
and water sources.
b- Pesticide production buildings should have good aeration tools.
c- The factory labors should be provided by proper tools and suitable clothing to
protect them from chemical hazards.
d- The labors should have sufficient information that may arise from used chemicals
and first-aid action in case of accidental conditions.
e- Providing the factory with proper equipments which should be subjected to frequent
f- The labors should receive training about using and cleaning equipments of the factory.
g- Applying restrict instructions of safety and occupational health given by the local
h- Using of less hazardous chemicals as alternatives to highly toxic ones.
i- Performing periodical examination to the factory labors.
j- A special pharmaceutical unit should be present in the factory for any use.
k- Providing industrial safety precautions which include fire-off devices, water sources,
sand and telephone.
l- Applying labels and sings of safety.
m- Food, drink or smoking in chemical store areas is prohibited.
n- Labors should follow proper safety measurements such as good washing after work,
wearing clean clothes and washing used clothes daily. o- Contaminated clothes should not be washed with other clothes and should not be wearied
in home. Avoid taking the remaining pesticide to the home.

3- Requirements of pesticide safe handling during packing and labeling
3.1. Packing
The pesticide container should be tightly closed and stamped by the manufacturer.
The following should be considered:
1- The packing material should not react with the pesticide.
2- The packing material should not permeable to light or sun rays.
3- The packing material should be easy to destruction after use to forbid its re-use in
other purposes.
4- Pesticide containers should be in different sizes and varieties to fulfill requirements
of small farmers.
5- The original label should be stick on the pesticide container.
3.2. Labeling
The following should be on the label:
1- The pesticide trade name or the official name approved from the company.
2- Name of active ingredient(s) and concentration.
3- The formulation type (e.g., liquid, dust, granules, etc.).
4- Mode of action (e.g., systemic, contact…., etc.).
5- Formulation constituents.
6- Instructions of use according to official registration data, which include: pests, crops,
dosages, application method, timing, frequency of application, re-entry of sprayed field,
safety periods, and so on.
7- Precautionary signs which indicate the degree of hazard and toxicity of the pesticide.
For this purpose, the following colors are used: Red (extremely toxic); Yellow (toxic);
Blue (slightly toxic); and Green (caution.
8- Information about the producing company, exporter and distributor.
9- Dates of production and expiry.
10- Registration and batch numbers.
11- Net weight or volume.
12- The official manufacturer responsible for pesticide identity.
13- Substances not to be mixed with pesticide.
14- First-aid of poisoning instructions.
15- Useful information for physician.
16- Instructions of container get-rid.

4- Safety precautions during pesticide transportation
4.1. Loading and shipping:
Prior to loading, the pesticide containers should be examined to check their quality, labeling, validity date and if storage effects are seen. The important considerations, prior loading and shipping are briefly mentioned below:
1- Labels should be staked to the containers in a clear and easy to checked, written in English and Arabic to facilitate handling in exporting and importing countries.
2- Any unsuitable containers (e.g., damaged, unfit, leak, rusted, loose, etc.) should not be loaded.
3- Replacement of any pesticide container which show any appearance of damage during loading or previous shipping.
4- Only containers of clear and suitable labels are permitted for loading.
5- Warning statements on pesticide containers should be clear, whatever they toxicity category.
6- Loading places should be away from direct sunlight and humidity, and bottomed with metal or wood.

4.2. Transportation tools of shipment:
Before loading, the transportation tools (e.g., car, ship, plane, train, etc.) should be examined for its suitability, in light of the following points:
1- Should be of internal size suitable for the loaded quantity.
2- Should not be in use for loading vegetables, fruits, foods and animal feeds.
3- In case of loading other goods with pesticides, the latter should be completely isolated.
4- Heavier containers should be placed below lighter ones, and those of higher toxicity below the ones of lower toxicity.
5- Dry formulations should be placed above the liquid ones, and the latter ones should be always placed in upright positions regarding to their openings.
6- It is not permitted to load animals and humans with pesticides, except undertaking accurate isolation. Also, the same should be undertaken in case of loading with oxidant or flammable substances.

4.3. After re-loading:
Upon arrivals of the pesticides to the store, well-trained labors equipped with protective clothing have to check the following:
1- Check quantity and quality of the containers against the receipt document.
2- Any damaged or untied container should be placed into new container containing the same label.
3- The transportation tool should be examined thoroughly and cleaned after complete re-loading.
4- Replacement of any damaged labels.

5- Safety precautions for pesticide handling during storage
The storehouse word refers to a wide place where pesticides are stored with relatively large
quantities and is usually carried out by importers, manufacturers, formulators, packing sectors
and sellers. But the store selling is the place that use for pesticides selling directly to the
farmers. It is unusual to have a small store adjacent to their stores or close to them. The
pesticide dealer must be aware that the biological activity of pesticides is gradually decreases
over time. The shelf-life of a pesticide is defined as "the time in which the product retains
its full efficacy in the control of pests under optimal conditions". There are basic safe storage
rules in order to maintain pesticides in a good case. Storehouses should be located away from areas where people or animals are housed and away from water
sources, wells, canals and area that may flood. Keep pesticides, other poisons and related materials
in a separate location designated mainly for the storage of these products. Never store pesticides
where food, feed, seed, fertilizers or other products can become contaminated.

5.1. General considerations:
1- Pesticides must not be kept where they would be exposed to sunlight, water, or moisture which could
affect their stability.
2- With shelf storage, store dry pesticides on the top shelves while liquid ones on the lower shelves.
Store herbicides on the lowest level.
3- The pesticide containers should be inspected regularly for leaks or defects.
4- The storage area should be equipped with personal protective equipments and materials to handle
accidents and spills. Activated charcoal, absorptive clay, vermiculite and sawdust are good materials
to absorb liquid spills. These protective equipments along with food, drinks and first-aid supplies
should be kept out of the storage area.
5- Fire detectors and fire extinguisher should be available, in addition to sand and water supply.
6- A water supply should be furnished for mixing, cleanup and showers for the persons, who mix,
load and apply the pesticides.
7- No smoking, eating or drinking in the storage area of pesticides are permitted.
8- The unauthorized persons should not permit to enter the pesticide store.
9- Post warning signs on the door, building, or fence that indicate pesticide store,
such as Pesticides-Poisons, Keep out ….. etc.

5.2. Guidelines for trading shops and selling stores of pesticides:
For stores or pesticide selling shops, they should have the following criteria:
1- They should be away from food, clothing stores, pharmacies and shops which are selling other materials.
2- The store should be tightly with concrete floors and block walls. 3- Pesticides shelves should be made from wooden base covered with metal or plastic sheet. 4- Provide an electrical power for lighting, an exhaust fan, a heater, suction and alarm in the storage area.
5- Keep the storage area well ventilated and keep outside doors and windows closed and locked,
unless windows are needed for ventilation.

5.3. Responsibilities of pesticides users and storekeepers:
Whether you are a storekeeper, producer, or applicator of pesticides, there are basic safe storage< br /> rules to follow: 1- Store pesticides in their original containers and tightly sealed.
2- Store pesticides in a separate room or building and keep away from homes, play areas, feedlots,
animal shelters and gardens.
3- Keep personal protective equipment, fire extinguisher and other cleaning materials near storage
area for emergency.
4- Provide a basic first-aid box containing information on pesticide poisonings, emergency medical
information and the telephone numbers for poison centers.
5- Oldest pesticides are used first, especially those that have a short shelf life.
6- Restore the remaining portion of pesticides after usage.
7- A detailed list of pesticides should be placed in different positions in the store.
8- Destroy the outdated and damaged containers.
9- Clearly mark the storage area with warning signs to prevent the entry of un-authorized persons.
10- Store pesticides on shelves to protect them from moisture.
11- A drainage system should be built to collect any rinsing water or spills.
12- Store each type of pesticide formulations in a separate place to minimize cross contamination.
13- Store liquid formulations below dry formulations to protect the latter from damage due to leakage.
14- The authorized person should inspect the pesticide containers regularly for any damage, leakage and
expiration date.
15- A damaged container should be repackaged, transferred to an empty container that originally held the
same material and has the same label attachment.
16- Use the pick-up cars for mobile storage pesticide containers.
17- Select storehouses away from public places. It should be easy access for pesticide delivery, furnished
with equipment for emergency, insurance protection, ventilation and lightning.

5.4. Guidelines for emergency response:
Tacking into considerations the previously mentioned under items 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 for general considerations
of safety precautions for pesticide handling during storage, the emergency response should be followed.
5.5. Pesticide spill:
Spill may occur during transport, storage, mixing and processing (loading). According to the guidelines of FAO,
there are three stages to deal with the pesticide sills which include: Control of the situation, containment
the situation and cleaning (cleanup). During these stages, the following should be undertaken:
5.5.1. Control of the situation
1- Wear the necessary protective clothing.
2- If possible, turn-off the sources of spill and repacking by transfer the contents to an empty larger container
which has the same label.
3- If a spill occurs, avoid other persons to reach the contamination site, and appoint one of the persons at the
top of the site to alert others for not to be approached.
5.5.2. Containment the situation
1- The spread of pesticide spill should be prevented and isolate the subject of the spill with sand, soil or fences.
2- Absorb liquid spill by covering it with sand, soil, sawdust or newspaper.
3- Avoid the drift of dry pesticides due to wind by covering it with plastic sheet or spray with a light stream of water.
5.5.3. Cleanup 1- If the liquid pesticides spilled, collect the absorbed materials which decontaminate the spill point and placed in a bag
of strong material until to appropriate disposal.
2- If the dry pesticides spilled, sweep it carefully and place it in a bag of strong material until to appropriate disposal. 3- Wash the spill area with soap and water or detergent if the spill point is not porous such as concrete.
Do not use high amount of water to avoid the spread of contamination. Then, use absorbent material
to collect the water and place it in a bag of strong material until to appropriate disposal.
4- Wash all the spill-cleaning tools and clothing's used during containment and cleanup processes.
5- Shower should be taken at the end of the cleanup.

6- Safety precautions for pesticide handling during pre-application
Preparation of pesticides for application is the most dangerous process, including calibration, mixing, sprayer filling, etc., due to probable pesticide spill out and exposure of the labor to risks. The following safety precautions should be considered:
1- Selection of proper application rates with respect to the required treatments, and taking into account the active ingredient content.
2- Check validity of mechanical parts of the spraying machine, loose, filters and pressure. Such checking may be carried out one day before application using clean water under field conditions.
3- Performing proper calibration for application rates to guarantee efficacy of the pesticide against targeted pests and avoid residues in the crop when harvested or pollution of the environment, as well as excess use of the pesticide.
4- The containers label should be thoroughly read and understood before pesticide use.
5- Estimation of area treated before spraying so that determining the required quantity of the pesticide.
6- Wearing protective clothing and equipments, and preparing first-aid tools for any need in the location, cleaning tools should be cleaned following every use.
7- It is not permitted to carry out calibration, mixing and preparation of pesticide liquids by individual person.
8- Pesticide mixing should be carried out out-door or in good aerated place; taking care when opening concentrated liquids and powder sacs. The pesticide liquid or the powder may be spill out or volatile causing risks to the worker.
9- Mixing and diluting of pesticide in the sprayer should be carried out in the same field subjected to treatment.
10-The completely used pesticide container should be rinsed with water or the diluents and added to sprayer up to the mark.
11-Remaining pesticide quantity should be kept in its original container with label indicating the remaining quantity.
12-Pesticide containers should be tightly closed and placed in the store after use.
13-In case of any pesticide contamination, skin should be immediately washed by water and soap. Clothes should be changed as quickly as possible and cleaned before re-use. Contaminated clothes are not allowed to wash with other clothes.
14-Gloves should be washed before taking off from hands, and new ones should be used.
15-Eating, drinking or smoking is prohibited during all operations of pesticide calibration and mixing. Good washing with water and soap is a must.
16-Withdrawal of pesticide solution by mouth, through any tool, is prohibited.

7- Safety precautions for pesticide handling during application
There are many technical considerations for field application of the pesticide which depend upon the crop, the pest and the spraying equipments. Applicators should be well-trained about technical considerations to secure achieving efficient results, and protecting themselves, others and the environment from pesticide hazards; such as:
1- Sprayers should receive suitable training program.
2- Children's are not allowed to apply or expose to pesticides in the field.
3- Pesticide label should be read before application.
4- Weather forecasting, especially wind speed, should be undertaking into consideration, spraying should be carried out in parallel to the wind direction.
5- Wearing protective clothing and tools.
6- Dosage and rates recorded on the label should be strictly used.
7- Spraying has to be performed in suitable time with respect to honeybees and insect pollinators.
8- After spraying completion, the equipments should be cleaned in the same working day. Remaining pesticide solution should not allow to left in the sprayer.
9- Washing water should be sprayed in the same treated field.
10- First-aid safety emergency should be available during application.
11- Applicators should be informed about possible hazards; therefore protective tools should be sufficient.
12- People and animals should not be in contact with recently sprayed cultivations.
13- Signs and precautions should be placed at the pesticide sprayed field; such as:
• Re-entry period after pesticide spraying.
• Pre-harvest interval (safety period).

8- Safety precautions for pesticide handling during get rid of obsolete and wastes
Obsolete pesticides, of expired validity, may cause serious problems in the storage places. They may cause contamination or poisoning when used, or released from containers or fired due to wrong storage. These obsolete pesticides may cause environmental pollution if burned in the space or buried in the soil. Therefore obsolete pesticides and empty containers should be properly handled and sufficient precautions should be undertaken, such as:
1- Selection of suitable place for getting rid of dangerous chemicals, taking into considerations citizen's in the nearby areas.
2- Not dumping containers and pesticide residues near or in water streams.
3- It is not allowed to use empty pesticide containers for food storage or water, either for human or animals.
4- It has to ask the agricultural supervisor and the environmental administrator for the ideal way to get rid obsolete pesticides and empty containers.
5- Pesticides and/or contaminated waste should not place with the household rubbish and domestic wastes.
6- Pesticide empty containers should not be washed in water streams.
7- Metal containers should be crushed before get rid. Plastic containers of aerosols should be bored and compressed before get rid. Carton containers should be burned away from houses and fields.
8- Get rid of obsolete pesticides can be carried out by:
• Chemical treatments.
• Complete burning in furnaces of about 1100o C.
• Biological destruction.
• Burial should be done in a specified and isolated area which receives wastes from all surrounding places. A record containing all information should be kept for the area of disposal.